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Covenant Use Cases & TXHASH

Jan 15, 2024

Covenant Use Cases & TXHASH

Covenant Use Cases & TXHASH

Key Takeaways

In this episode of the Stephan Livera Podcast, Stephan and Steven Roose explored the intricate topic of covenants on Bitcoin, with a particular focus on TXHASH. Roose, a seasoned Bitcoin developer, shared his insights into the various covenant use cases, such as transaction templating, LN symmetry, vaults, and more.

Covenants: Roose explained that covenants are akin to an addition to Bitcoin's scripting capabilities, allowing users to set conditions on how coins can be spent. They're seen as a way to scale Bitcoin to different layers and create complex constructions in an efficient manner. Covenants have always been part of Bitcoin in some form, with CheckSig acting as a rudimentary covenant.

Are Covenants Necessary for Bitcoin?
The conversation about Bitcoin covenants is centered on the need to scale non-custodial usage of Bitcoin beyond the current capacity, which is estimated to support only 100 million users engaging in minimal channel management on the Lightning Network.

Use Cases: Covenants allow for a variety of applications, including transaction templating that reduces the need for pre-signed transactions, and vaults that offer enhanced security for coin storage. They also enable larger-scale constructions like payment pools and complex protocols like Arc.

TXHASH Proposal: Roose introduced TXHASH as a more advanced form of CTV (CheckTemplateVerify), allowing users to template parts of a transaction with finer control. It originated from a mailing list discussion and is viewed as a "super version" of CTV, capable of enabling additional use cases that CTV cannot.

CheckTemplateVerify (CTV): CTV was discussed as one of the simplest possible changes to Bitcoin, offering the ability to create predefined templates for transactions.

CheckSigFromStack and TXHASH Interaction: Roose described CheckSigFromStack as an opcode that verifies a signature against any message provided on the stack, unlike the standard CheckSig which implies the message is the transaction itself. TX hash combined with CheckSigFromStack can emulate various signature schemes, offering extensive flexibility.

Commercial Viability and Technical Debt: The podcast touched on the challenges of proving commercial viability and real demand for covenant-related features, as well as the concerns regarding technical debt associated with introducing new opcodes or changing existing ones.

Best Quotes

  1. "Covenants are really powerful in allowing us to create these kinds of constructions."
  2. "By restricting our own coins in a certain way, we can be a part of certain protocols that would otherwise not be possible."
  3. "TXHASH is basically a super version of CTV that allows for more things."
  4. "With CheckSigFromStack, you can verify any signature on any message that anyone has created."
  5. "We need to do this kind of schemes where things get a little bit more complicating than just broadcasting a transaction and a signature."


The episode provided a deep dive into the world of Bitcoin covenants, focusing on the TXHASH proposal and its potential to unlock new use cases and efficiencies within the Bitcoin network. Steven Roose's expertise shed light on how covenants could enhance Bitcoin's scalability, security, and versatility. While the technical aspects can be complex, the discussion made it clear that covenants represent a significant opportunity for innovation in the Bitcoin protocol. However, the episode also acknowledged the challenges of proving demand for new features and managing technical debt. The overarching message emphasized the importance of careful consideration and collaboration within the Bitcoin community when contemplating changes to the protocol. Future discussions should continue to weigh the benefits of such advancements against the risks, ensuring that Bitcoin remains robust and adaptable for years to come.


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